Essay On Nature Vs Nurture Debate

Nature Vs Nurture Debate

In the nature Vs nurture debate it contrasts two important ways of explaining human growth and development, nature refers to an individual's innate qualities (nativism). Nature is your genes, the physical and personality traits determined by your genes stay the same irrespective of where you were born and raised, for example; biological and family factors. Whereas nurture refers to personal experiences (e.g. empiricism or behaviourism). Nature refers to your childhood, or how you were brought up. Someone could be born with genes to give them a normal height, but be malnourished in childhood, resulting in stunted growth and a failure to develop as expected, for example; social and environmental factors.

Richard Branson is an entrepreneur, an entrepreneur is defined as a person who attempts to profit by risk and initiative; Richard Branson has taken many risks and has been very successful. He has become a renowned name in the business world; many people didn't expect a dyslexic boy to become a 'leading world emperor'.

Branson is dyslexic and nearsighted; he wasn't seen as a very bright boy, his disabilities made it difficult for his teachers to recognise his aspirations and drive. He was educated at Scaitcliffe School until the age of thirteen which he almost failed, he then went on to attend Stowe school; still struggling Brandon dropped out at the age of 16. It wasn't until Branson became an adolescent that his abilities and talents became more obvious.

Individuals may have not of understood him or seen the possibility of him becoming a success. His family were well off and very intelligent, they have highly respectable and well paid jobs, this may have made Branson lose motivation to achieve and push him to, also he may have felt some pressure to live up to his parents expectations.

His ability to connect with people was not recognized until later years. On one of Branson's last days at school, his headmaster told him he would either end up in prison or become a millionaire.

D1 evaluate how nature and nurture may affect the physical, intellectual, emotional and social development of two stages of the development of an individual
1) You will then evaluate the possible effects of genetic inheritance and the environment discussing the role of nature and nurture in influencing development. It is very unlikely that you will be able to find any useful information about your person's genetics or indeed enough information about their environmental circumstances to make statements or judgements about the specific role of these factors in the person's life. Instead, you should discuss the broader issues associated with nature and nurture in the context of the person's life story.
You will need to include at least 2 theorists e.g. Harlow, Gessell, Bandura, Bowlby, Piaget, Erikson, Skinner
Possible effects of genetic inheritance in influencing development '
Natural influences on human growth and development include genetic factors and biological processes that affect the person from within. People who take an extreme nature viewpoint argue that we are pre-programmed by our genes and biological processes to develop and behave in certain ways. By contrast, nurture influences are non-biological, environmental factors that affect the person from outside. People who take an extreme nurture viewpoint argue that human beings are not programmed to develop in a specific way because we have free will, can make lifestyle choices and are influences by a complex range of psychological, social, geographic and economic factors.

He was born from an intelligent family, his father Edward James Branson, worked as a barrister, His mother, Eve Branson, was employed as a flight attendant. His grandfather, the Right Honorable Sir George Arthur Harwin Branson, was a judge of the High Court of Justice and a Privy Councilor. So he is expected to be born with the same intellectual capabilities of his family before him.

Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was a psychologist, he first put forward the theory that we are born with basic intellectual abilities which improve as we experience different stages of intellectual development during infancy, childhood and adolescence. Piaget's theory claims that cognitive development occurs when the child's brain has matured so that it is 'ready' for development. He argued that new information ad experiences are gradually assimilated into the child's existing thinking. When this happens the new experiences are accommodated by modifying existing thinking ' What Piaget is suggesting is that we are born with a certain intellectual ability but this ability grow and shapes through the influence of our environment. This is somewhat proven with Branson, as he is born from his family with their intellect, and it wasn't until much later on that his cognitive ability showed.

Possible effects of the environment in influencing development '
Nature and nurture influences on human growth and development can also be thought of as internal and external influences. Internal (nature) factors, such as genes, determine how a person grows and develops because they have a direct biological influence on the person. These internal nature-type influences tend to have their strongest impact on growth and development during infancy, adolescence and old age. Basic, biological processes cause irreversible physical changes to the human body during these life stages.

Teachers and other individuals (secondary socialisation) didn't expect much from Branson, this could have made him feel as though he wouldn't amount to anything, it could have made him lose confidence in himself and lose motivation. But what he learnt from his family, his parents in particular (primary socialisation) proved to be more dominant in shaping Branson during his development. Although he struggled in school this didn't mean he was not intelligent, he later on became successful even though he dropped out of school at an early age.

Branson's upbringing was very encouraging; his parents were behind him on everything he did,
Branson's parents were supportive of his endeavors from an early age. When 15-year-old Richard decided to breed budgies and persuaded his father to build a huge aviary, his father built it. This encouragement allowed Branson to feel capable of doing well and trying new things when it comes to careers and taking risks (this benefitted him later on in his working industry). The Branson family budget was fairly tight when Richard was growing up, his mother made ends meet by selling items she would make, if an item didn't sell, she tried something else. This played a role in the way Branson developed as this is the sort of work ethic he uses within his career; also living with a tight budget may have motivated him to want a better life for himself and for his family.

There is a rather well-known story about Branson's mum stopping the car on the way home from a shopping trip and telling him to find his own way home - about three miles through the countryside, and he was somewhere around five years old. She was punishing him for causing mischief in the back seat, but she was also teaching him a larger lesson about overcoming his disabling shyness and learning to ask others for directions. This can be seen as a very harsh thing to do, but in Branson's mother's eyes, she was preparing him for the future.

Erik Erikson (1902-94) was a theorist inspired by Freud's work, Erikson produced a theory of psychological development that as influenced the work of many psychologists, educations and health and social care practitioners. Erikson developed a theory of psychosexual development based on the ideas of Freud. He believed people experience several stages of psychosexual development over their lifetime and that social relationships play a significant part in this. Erikson rejected Freud's emphasis on unconscious forces and individual gratification. Instead he argued that an individual's development is motivated by a human need to be accepted by society and to live a meaningful life. Erikson developed his theory around the idea that people face and have to tackle a series of psychosocial crises in life. Each has a different social focus. ' Erikson's theory is very nurture based, he believed that experiences develop and shape an individual over a lifetime not so much their genetic inheritance. This is proven with Branson because no matter what he inherited the way he was brought up changed and had a big part in the way he developed into the successful man he is today.

Issues with nature and nurture of the person's life story '
Although the internal environment (nature) is an important influence, the external environmental (nurture) influences, on the other hand, have a less direct effect on human growth and development. They tend to shape rather than determine a person's emotional, social and intellectual development and life course. External environmental influences are important, for example, in promoting social development during childhood and adolescence and emotional development during infancy and adolescence. There seem to be more effects of environmental influences, especially for Branson; making it almost completely outweigh the effects of genetic inheritance. However; this doesn't mean that nature doesn't play a role in how an individual develops. For example; Branson was born with dyslexia and he was nearsighted, but his environment (such as his parents), shaped him into becoming a confident, motivated individual who was fully capable of doing well.

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The Nature vs. Nurture Debate

     Being yourself, being who you are. When you hear those two lines you may think they mean the same thing but do they? Think about it, you were born into this world a tiny little baby with no ideas, or preferences, but as you grew you developed a personal identity, but did it really develop or was it in you to begin with. Such questions are what leads to the great debate of nature vs nurture. If you believe you were born already with a personality, then you take the side of nature. on the other hand if you believe that your personality developed based on influences in your life beginning when you were a child then you believe in nurture. Two totally different theories, both which are believed to make us who we are.

     Nature, the more scientific theory of the two, is the belief that hereditary traits found in our genes make us who we are, believable but not very convincing when we consider the theory of nurture. Human beings learn new things everyday, as soon as we come in to the world, our learning process begins. As a newborn baby, we slowly learn and adapt in order to survive in a new environment which is unlike that of our mothers wombs, our first environment in which we first grew, adapted to and developed in. The home environment parents and siblings play a huge role in determining personality. Influences from outside the family are also very important to the development of ones personality. But everything starts at home.

          One can't enjoy snowboarding or claim to like it, until one tries it, without the experience its impossible to say you enjoyed it. Correct? Or do you think its already embedded in you're genes that you'll like snowboarding. Unlikely right? Exactly, experiences and influences are what make us who we are. On the other hand think about it, what if you went snowboarding for the first time and broke your arm; deciding then that you hated snowboarding. Well then it couldn't have been embedded in your genes that you'd like it.

     Scientists make a good point about genes but I believe physical aspects come through genetics, but that personality development is shaped based solely on how a person has been nurtured through their lives. All children are bad at one time in their lives; consider this, a 4 year old girl throws a book at her brother, and is punished she is put in the corner.

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Of course she doesn't like being made to stay in the corner but she should be able to put two and two together and learn that throwing books is wrong. Circumstances like so represent to us how easily children learn and are influenced by other people. This shows us the process in which humans learn, bringing us back to the theory of nurture learning things is what makes people who they are.

     As we grow older, we are projected to the outside world, media and friends bring us new theories, which can again change who we are. We may have been brought up being told by our parents that stealing was bad or that being an average weight was okay. But the media could easily change that belief, or friends could convince one that stealing is okay. This represents that humans are constantly changing and easily influenced. Proving that nothing about who we are is a fixed fact, the theory of nature doesn't work.

     In conclusion, it's obvious that the theory of nurture makes more sense then that or nature. Without influences from the world around us where would we be. We'd lack all basic skill's, we'd be unable to talk, or walk, we'd be completely different people. One's personal identity must develop through the environment it is what makes us who we are.

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